User Reference¶
This is the User Reference for the OSMnx package. If you are looking for an introduction to OSMnx, read the Getting Started guide. This guide describes the usage of OSMnx’s public API.
OSMnx 2.0 is in beta: read the migration guide.
osmnx.bearing module¶
Calculate graph edge bearings and orientation entropy.
- osmnx.bearing.add_edge_bearings(G)¶
Calculate and add compass bearing attributes to all graph edges.
Vectorized function to calculate (initial) bearing from origin node to destination node for each edge in a directed, unprojected graph then add these bearings as new bearing edge attributes. Bearing represents angle in degrees (clockwise) between north and the geodesic line from the origin node to the destination node. Ignores self-loop edges as their bearings are undefined.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Unprojected graph.- Returns:
G – Graph with bearing attributes on the edges.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.bearing.calculate_bearing(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2)¶
Calculate the compass bearing(s) between pairs of lat-lon points.
Vectorized function to calculate initial bearings between two points’ coordinates or between arrays of points’ coordinates. Expects coordinates in decimal degrees. The bearing represents the clockwise angle in degrees between north and the geodesic line from (lat1, lon1) to (lat2, lon2).
- Parameters:
lat1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s latitude coordinate(s).
lon1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s longitude coordinate(s).
lat2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s latitude coordinate(s).
lon2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s longitude coordinate(s).
- Returns:
bearing – The bearing(s) in decimal degrees.
- Return type:
float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]
- osmnx.bearing.orientation_entropy(G, *, num_bins=36, min_length=0, weight=None)¶
Calculate graph’s orientation entropy.
Orientation entropy is the Shannon entropy of the graphs’ edges’ bearings across evenly spaced bins. Ignores self-loop edges as their bearings are undefined. If G is a MultiGraph, all edge bearings will be bidirectional (ie, two reciprocal bearings per undirected edge). If G is a MultiDiGraph, all edge bearings will be directional (ie, one bearing per directed edge).
For more info see: Boeing, G. 2019. “Urban Spatial Order: Street Network Orientation, Configuration, and Entropy.” Applied Network Science, 4 (1), 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41109-019-0189-1
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiGraph | nx.MultiDiGraph) – Unprojected graph with bearing attributes on each edge.
num_bins (int) – Number of bins. For example, if num_bins=36 is provided, then each bin will represent 10 degrees around the compass.
min_length (float) – Ignore edges with “length” attributes less than min_length. Useful to ignore the noise of many very short edges.
weight (str | None) – If None, apply equal weight for each bearing. Otherwise, weight edges’ bearings by this (non-null) edge attribute. For example, if “length” is provided, each edge’s bearing observation will be weighted by its “length” attribute value.
- Returns:
entropy – The orientation entropy of G.
- Return type:
float
osmnx.convert module¶
Convert spatial graphs to/from different data types.
- osmnx.convert.graph_from_gdfs(gdf_nodes, gdf_edges, *, graph_attrs=None)¶
Convert node and edge GeoDataFrames to a MultiDiGraph.
This function is the inverse of graph_to_gdfs and is designed to work in conjunction with it. However, you can convert arbitrary node and edge GeoDataFrames as long as 1) gdf_nodes is uniquely indexed by osmid, 2) gdf_nodes contains x and y coordinate columns representing node geometries, 3) gdf_edges is uniquely multi-indexed by (u, v, key) (following normal MultiDiGraph structure). This allows you to load any node/edge Shapefiles or GeoPackage layers as GeoDataFrames then convert them to a MultiDiGraph for network analysis.
Note that any geometry attribute on gdf_nodes is discarded, since x and y provide the necessary node geometry information instead.
- Parameters:
gdf_nodes (
GeoDataFrame
) – GeoDataFrame of graph nodes uniquely indexed by osmid.gdf_edges (
GeoDataFrame
) – GeoDataFrame of graph edges uniquely multi-indexed by (u, v, key).graph_attrs (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – The new G.graph attribute dictionary. If None, use gdf_edges’s CRS as the only graph-level attribute (gdf_edges must have its crs attribute set).
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.convert.graph_to_gdfs(G, *, nodes=True, edges=True, node_geometry=True, fill_edge_geometry=True)¶
Convert a MultiGraph or MultiDiGraph to node and/or edge GeoDataFrames.
This function is the inverse of graph_from_gdfs.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiGraph | nx.MultiDiGraph) – Input graph.
nodes (bool) – If True, convert graph nodes to a GeoDataFrame and return it.
edges (bool) – If True, convert graph edges to a GeoDataFrame and return it.
node_geometry (bool) – If True, create a geometry column from node “x” and “y” attributes.
fill_edge_geometry (bool) – If True, fill missing edge geometry fields using endpoint nodes’ coordinates to create a LineString.
- Returns:
gdf_nodes or gdf_edges or (gdf_nodes, gdf_edges) – gdf_nodes is indexed by osmid and gdf_edges is multi-indexed by (u, v, key) following normal MultiGraph/MultiDiGraph structure.
- Return type:
gpd.GeoDataFrame | tuple[gpd.GeoDataFrame, gpd.GeoDataFrame]
- osmnx.convert.to_digraph(G, *, weight='length')¶
Convert MultiDiGraph to DiGraph.
Chooses between parallel edges by minimizing weight attribute value. See also to_undirected to convert MultiDiGraph to MultiGraph.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.weight (
str
) – Attribute value to minimize when choosing between parallel edges.
- Returns:
DiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.DiGraph
- osmnx.convert.to_undirected(G)¶
Convert MultiDiGraph to undirected MultiGraph.
Maintains parallel edges only if their geometries differ. See also to_digraph to convert MultiDiGraph to DiGraph.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
MultiGraph
– Gu- Return type:
networkx.MultiGraph
osmnx.distance module¶
Calculate distances and find nearest graph node/edge(s) to point(s).
- osmnx.distance.add_edge_lengths(G, *, edges=None)¶
Calculate and add length attribute (in meters) to each edge.
Vectorized function to calculate great-circle distance between each edge’s incident nodes. Ensure graph is unprojected and unsimplified to calculate accurate distances.
Note: this function is run by all the graph.graph_from_x functions automatically to add length attributes to all edges. It calculates edge lengths as the great-circle distance from node u to node v. When OSMnx automatically runs this function upon graph creation, it does it before simplifying the graph: thus it calculates the straight-line lengths of edge segments that are themselves all straight. Only after simplification do edges take on (potentially) curvilinear geometry. If you wish to calculate edge lengths later, note that you will be calculating straight-line distances which necessarily ignore the curvilinear geometry. Thus you only want to run this function on a graph with all straight edges (such as is the case with an unsimplified graph).
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Unprojected and unsimplified input graph.edges (
Iterable
[tuple
[int
,int
,int
]] |None
) – The subset of edges to add length attributes to, as (u, v, k) tuples. If None, add lengths to all edges.
- Returns:
G – Graph with length attributes on the edges.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.distance.euclidean(y1, x1, y2, x2)¶
Calculate Euclidean distances between pairs of points.
Vectorized function to calculate the Euclidean distance between two points’ coordinates or between arrays of points’ coordinates. For accurate results, use projected coordinates rather than decimal degrees.
- Parameters:
y1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s y coordinate(s).
x1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s x coordinate(s).
y2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s y coordinate(s).
x2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s x coordinate(s).
- Returns:
dist – Distance from each (x1, y1) point to each (x2, y2) point in same units as the points’ coordinates.
- Return type:
float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]
- osmnx.distance.great_circle(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2, earth_radius=6371009)¶
Calculate great-circle distances between pairs of points.
Vectorized function to calculate the great-circle distance between two points’ coordinates or between arrays of points’ coordinates using the haversine formula. Expects coordinates in decimal degrees.
- Parameters:
lat1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s latitude coordinate(s).
lon1 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – First point’s longitude coordinate(s).
lat2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s latitude coordinate(s).
lon2 (float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]) – Second point’s longitude coordinate(s).
earth_radius (float) – Earth’s radius in units in which distance will be returned (default represents meters).
- Returns:
dist – Distance from each (lat1, lon1) point to each (lat2, lon2) point in units of earth_radius.
- Return type:
float | npt.NDArray[np.float64]
- osmnx.distance.nearest_edges(G, X, Y, *, return_dist=False)¶
Find the nearest edge to a point or to each of several points.
If X and Y are single coordinate values, this will return the nearest edge to that point. If X and Y are iterables of coordinate values, this will return the nearest edge to each point. This uses an R-tree spatial index and minimizes the Euclidean distance from each point to the possible matches. For accurate results, use a projected graph and points.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiDiGraph) – Graph in which to find nearest edges.
X (float | Iterable[float]) – The points’ x (longitude) coordinates, in same CRS/units as graph and containing no nulls.
Y (float | Iterable[float]) – The points’ y (latitude) coordinates, in same CRS/units as graph and containing no nulls.
return_dist (bool) – If True, optionally also return the distance(s) between point(s) and nearest edge(s).
- Returns:
ne or (ne, dist) – Nearest edge ID(s) as (u, v, k) tuples, or optionally a tuple of ID(s) and distance(s) between each point and its nearest edge.
- Return type:
tuple[int, int, int] | npt.NDArray[np.object_] | tuple[tuple[int, int, int], float] | tuple[npt.NDArray[np.object_], npt.NDArray[np.float64]]
- osmnx.distance.nearest_nodes(G, X, Y, *, return_dist=False)¶
Find the nearest node to a point or to each of several points.
If X and Y are single coordinate values, this will return the nearest node to that point. If X and Y are iterables of coordinate values, this will return the nearest node to each point.
If the graph is projected, this uses a k-d tree for Euclidean nearest neighbor search, which requires that scipy is installed as an optional dependency. If it is unprojected, this uses a ball tree for haversine nearest neighbor search, which requires that scikit-learn is installed as an optional dependency.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiDiGraph) – Graph in which to find nearest nodes.
X (float | Iterable[float]) – The points’ x (longitude) coordinates, in same CRS/units as graph and containing no nulls.
Y (float | Iterable[float]) – The points’ y (latitude) coordinates, in same CRS/units as graph and containing no nulls.
return_dist (bool) – If True, optionally also return the distance(s) between point(s) and nearest node(s).
- Returns:
nn or (nn, dist) – Nearest node ID(s) or optionally a tuple of ID(s) and distance(s) between each point and its nearest node.
- Return type:
int | npt.NDArray[np.int64] | tuple[int, float] | tuple[npt.NDArray[np.int64], npt.NDArray[np.float64]]
osmnx.elevation module¶
Add node elevations from raster files or web APIs, and calculate edge grades.
- osmnx.elevation.add_edge_grades(G, *, add_absolute=True)¶
Calculate and add grade attributes to all graph edges.
Vectorized function to calculate the directed grade (i.e., rise over run) for each edge in the graph and add it to the edge as an attribute. Nodes must already have elevation and length attributes before using this function.
See also the add_node_elevations_raster and add_node_elevations_google functions.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Graph with elevation node attributes.add_absolute (
bool
) – If True, also add absolute value of grade as grade_abs attribute.
- Returns:
G – Graph with grade (and optionally grade_abs) attributes on the edges.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.elevation.add_node_elevations_google(G, *, api_key=None, batch_size=512, pause=0)¶
Add elevation (meters) attributes to all nodes using a web service.
By default, this uses the Google Maps Elevation API but you can optionally use an equivalent API with the same interface and response format, such as Open Topo Data, via the settings module’s elevation_url_template. The Google Maps Elevation API requires an API key but other providers may not. You can find more information about the Google Maps Elevation API at: https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/elevation
For a free local alternative see the add_node_elevations_raster function. See also the add_edge_grades function.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Graph to add elevation data to.api_key (
str
|None
) – A valid API key. Can be None if the API does not require a key.batch_size (
int
) – Max number of coordinate pairs to submit in each request (depends on provider’s limits). Google’s limit is 512.pause (
float
) – How long to pause in seconds between API calls, which can be increased if you get rate limited.
- Returns:
G – Graph with elevation attributes on the nodes.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.elevation.add_node_elevations_raster(G, filepath, *, band=1, cpus=None)¶
Add elevation attributes to all nodes from local raster file(s).
If filepath is an iterable of paths, this will generate a virtual raster composed of the files at those paths as an intermediate step.
See also the add_edge_grades function.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Graph in same CRS as raster.filepath (
str
|Path
|Iterable
[str
|Path
]) – The path(s) to the raster file(s) to query.band (
int
) – Which raster band to query.cpus (
int
|None
) – How many CPU cores to use. If None, use all available.
- Returns:
G – Graph with elevation attributes on the nodes.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
osmnx.features module¶
Download and create GeoDataFrames from OpenStreetMap geospatial features.
Retrieve points of interest, building footprints, transit lines/stops, or any other map features from OSM, including their geometries and attribute data, then construct a GeoDataFrame of them. You can use this module to query for nodes, ways, and relations (the latter of type “multipolygon” or “boundary” only) by passing a dictionary of desired OSM tags.
For more details, see https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features and https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Elements
Refer to the Getting Started guide for usage limitations.
- osmnx.features.features_from_address(address, tags, dist)¶
Download OSM features within some distance of an address.
You can use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings. This function searches for features using tags. For more details, see: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features
- Parameters:
address (
str
) – The address to geocode and use as the center point around which to retrieve the features.tags (
dict
[str
,bool
|str
|list
[str
]]) – Tags for finding elements in the selected area. Results are the union, not intersection of the tags and each result matches at least one tag. The keys are OSM tags (e.g. building, landuse, highway, etc) and the values can be either True to retrieve all elements matching the tag, or a string to retrieve a single tag:value combination, or a list of strings to retrieve multiple values for the tag. For example, tags = {‘building’: True} would return all buildings in the area. Or, tags = {‘amenity’:True, ‘landuse’:[‘retail’,’commercial’], ‘highway’:’bus_stop’} would return all amenities, any landuse=retail, any landuse=commercial, and any highway=bus_stop.dist (
float
) – Distance in meters from address to create a bounding box to query.
- Returns:
GeoDataFrame
– gdf- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.features.features_from_bbox(bbox, tags)¶
Download OSM features within a lat-lon bounding box.
You can use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings. This function searches for features using tags. For more details, see: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features
- Parameters:
bbox (
tuple
[float
,float
,float
,float
]) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west). Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).tags (
dict
[str
,bool
|str
|list
[str
]]) – Tags for finding elements in the selected area. Results are the union, not intersection of the tags and each result matches at least one tag. The keys are OSM tags (e.g. building, landuse, highway, etc) and the values can be either True to retrieve all elements matching the tag, or a string to retrieve a single tag:value combination, or a list of strings to retrieve multiple values for the tag. For example, tags = {‘building’: True} would return all buildings in the area. Or, tags = {‘amenity’:True, ‘landuse’:[‘retail’,’commercial’], ‘highway’:’bus_stop’} would return all amenities, any landuse=retail, any landuse=commercial, and any highway=bus_stop.
- Returns:
GeoDataFrame
– gdf- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.features.features_from_place(query, tags, *, which_result=None)¶
Download OSM features within the boundaries of some place(s).
The query must be geocodable and OSM must have polygon boundaries for the geocode result. If OSM does not have a polygon for this place, you can instead get features within it using the features_from_address function, which geocodes the place name to a point and gets the features within some distance of that point.
If OSM does have polygon boundaries for this place but you’re not finding it, try to vary the query string, pass in a structured query dict, or vary the which_result argument to use a different geocode result. If you know the OSM ID of the place, you can retrieve its boundary polygon using the geocode_to_gdf function, then pass it to the features_from_polygon function.
You can use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings. This function searches for features using tags. For more details, see: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features
- Parameters:
query (
str
|dict
[str
,str
] |list
[str
|dict
[str
,str
]]) – The query or queries to geocode to retrieve place boundary polygon(s).tags (
dict
[str
,bool
|str
|list
[str
]]) – Tags for finding elements in the selected area. Results are the union, not intersection of the tags and each result matches at least one tag. The keys are OSM tags (e.g. building, landuse, highway, etc) and the values can be either True to retrieve all elements matching the tag, or a string to retrieve a single tag:value combination, or a list of strings to retrieve multiple values for the tag. For example, tags = {‘building’: True} would return all buildings in the area. Or, tags = {‘amenity’:True, ‘landuse’:[‘retail’,’commercial’], ‘highway’:’bus_stop’} would return all amenities, any landuse=retail, any landuse=commercial, and any highway=bus_stop.which_result (
int
|None
|list
[int
|None
]) – Which search result to return. If None, auto-select the first (Multi)Polygon or raise an error if OSM doesn’t return one.
- Returns:
GeoDataFrame
– gdf- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.features.features_from_point(center_point, tags, dist)¶
Download OSM features within some distance of a lat-lon point.
You can use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings. This function searches for features using tags. For more details, see: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features
- Parameters:
center_point (
tuple
[float
,float
]) – The (lat, lon) center point around which to retrieve the features. Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).tags (
dict
[str
,bool
|str
|list
[str
]]) – Tags for finding elements in the selected area. Results are the union, not intersection of the tags and each result matches at least one tag. The keys are OSM tags (e.g. building, landuse, highway, etc) and the values can be either True to retrieve all elements matching the tag, or a string to retrieve a single tag:value combination, or a list of strings to retrieve multiple values for the tag. For example, tags = {‘building’: True} would return all buildings in the area. Or, tags = {‘amenity’:True, ‘landuse’:[‘retail’,’commercial’], ‘highway’:’bus_stop’} would return all amenities, any landuse=retail, any landuse=commercial, and any highway=bus_stop.dist (
float
) – Distance in meters from center_point to create a bounding box to query.
- Returns:
GeoDataFrame
– gdf- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.features.features_from_polygon(polygon, tags)¶
Download OSM features within the boundaries of a (Multi)Polygon.
You can use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings. This function searches for features using tags. For more details, see: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_features
- Parameters:
polygon (Polygon | MultiPolygon) – The geometry within which to retrieve features. Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).
tags (dict[str, bool | str | list[str]]) – Tags for finding elements in the selected area. Results are the union, not intersection of the tags and each result matches at least one tag. The keys are OSM tags (e.g. building, landuse, highway, etc) and the values can be either True to retrieve all elements matching the tag, or a string to retrieve a single tag:value combination, or a list of strings to retrieve multiple values for the tag. For example, tags = {‘building’: True} would return all buildings in the area. Or, tags = {‘amenity’:True, ‘landuse’:[‘retail’,’commercial’], ‘highway’:’bus_stop’} would return all amenities, any landuse=retail, any landuse=commercial, and any highway=bus_stop.
- Returns:
gpd.GeoDataFrame – gdf
- Return type:
gpd.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.features.features_from_xml(filepath, *, polygon=None, tags=None, encoding='utf-8')¶
Create a GeoDataFrame of OSM features from data in an OSM XML file.
Because this function creates a GeoDataFrame of features from an OSM XML file that has already been downloaded (i.e., no query is made to the Overpass API), the polygon and tags arguments are optional. If they are None, filtering will be skipped.
- Parameters:
filepath (str | Path) – Path to file containing OSM XML data.
tags (dict[str, bool | str | list[str]] | None) – Query tags to optionally filter the final GeoDataFrame.
polygon (Polygon | MultiPolygon | None) – Spatial boundaries to optionally filter the final GeoDataFrame.
encoding (str) – The OSM XML file’s character encoding.
- Returns:
gpd.GeoDataFrame – gdf
- Return type:
gpd.GeoDataFrame
osmnx.geocoder module¶
Geocode place names or addresses or retrieve OSM elements by place name or ID.
This module uses the Nominatim API’s “search” and “lookup” endpoints. For more details see https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Elements and https://nominatim.org/.
- osmnx.geocoder.geocode(query)¶
Geocode place names or addresses to (lat, lon) with the Nominatim API.
This geocodes the query via the Nominatim “search” endpoint.
- Parameters:
query (
str
) – The query string to geocode.- Returns:
point – The (lat, lon) coordinates returned by the geocoder.
- Return type:
tuple[float, float]
- osmnx.geocoder.geocode_to_gdf(query, *, which_result=None, by_osmid=False)¶
Retrieve OSM elements by place name or OSM ID with the Nominatim API.
If searching by place name, the query argument can be a string or structured dict, or a list of such strings/dicts to send to the geocoder. This uses the Nominatim “search” endpoint to geocode the place name to the best-matching OSM element, then returns that element and its attribute data.
You can instead query by OSM ID by passing by_osmid=True. This uses the Nominatim “lookup” endpoint to retrieve the OSM element with that ID. In this case, the function treats the query argument as an OSM ID (or list of OSM IDs), which must be prepended with their types: node (N), way (W), or relation (R) in accordance with the Nominatim API format. For example, query=[“R2192363”, “N240109189”, “W427818536”].
If query is a list, then which_result must be either an int or a list with the same length as query. The queries you provide must be resolvable to elements in the Nominatim database. The resulting GeoDataFrame’s geometry column contains place boundaries if they exist.
- Parameters:
query (
str
|dict
[str
,str
] |list
[str
|dict
[str
,str
]]) – The query string(s) or structured dict(s) to geocode.which_result (
int
|None
|list
[int
|None
]) – Which search result to return. If None, auto-select the first (Multi)Polygon or raise an error if OSM doesn’t return one. To get the top match regardless of geometry type, set which_result=1. Ignored if by_osmid=True.by_osmid (
bool
) – If True, treat query as an OSM ID lookup rather than text search.
- Returns:
gdf – GeoDataFrame with one row for each query result.
- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
osmnx.graph module¶
Download and create graphs from OpenStreetMap data.
Refer to the Getting Started guide for usage limitations.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_address(address, dist, *, dist_type='bbox', network_type='all', simplify=True, retain_all=False, truncate_by_edge=False, custom_filter=None)¶
Download and create a graph within some distance of an address.
This function uses filters to query the Overpass API: you can either specify a pre-defined network_type or provide your own custom_filter with Overpass QL.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes. You can also use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings.
- Parameters:
address (str) – The address to geocode and use as the central point around which to construct the graph.
dist (float) – Retain only those nodes within this many meters of center_point, measuring distance according to dist_type.
dist_type (str) – {“network”, “bbox”} If “bbox”, retain only those nodes within a bounding box of dist. If “network”, retain only those nodes within dist network distance from the centermost node.
network_type (str) – {“all”, “all_public”, “bike”, “drive”, “drive_service”, “walk”} What type of street network to retrieve if custom_filter is None.
simplify (bool) – If True, simplify graph topology with the simplify_graph function.
retain_all (bool) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.
truncate_by_edge (bool) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.
custom_filter (str | None) – A custom ways filter to be used instead of the network_type presets, e.g. ‘[“power”~”line”]’ or ‘[“highway”~”motorway|trunk”]’. Also pass in a network_type that is in settings.bidirectional_network_types if you want the graph to be fully bidirectional.
- Returns:
nx.MultiDiGraph | tuple[nx.MultiDiGraph, tuple[float, float]] – G or (G, (lat, lon))
- Return type:
nx.MultiDiGraph | tuple[nx.MultiDiGraph, tuple[float, float]]
Notes
Very large query areas use the utils_geo._consolidate_subdivide_geometry function to automatically make multiple requests: see that function’s documentation for caveats.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_bbox(bbox, *, network_type='all', simplify=True, retain_all=False, truncate_by_edge=False, custom_filter=None)¶
Download and create a graph within a lat-lon bounding box.
This function uses filters to query the Overpass API: you can either specify a pre-defined network_type or provide your own custom_filter with Overpass QL.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes. You can also use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings.
- Parameters:
bbox (
tuple
[float
,float
,float
,float
]) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west). Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).network_type (
str
) – {“all”, “all_public”, “bike”, “drive”, “drive_service”, “walk”} What type of street network to retrieve if custom_filter is None.simplify (
bool
) – If True, simplify graph topology via the simplify_graph function.retain_all (
bool
) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.truncate_by_edge (
bool
) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.custom_filter (
str
|None
) – A custom ways filter to be used instead of the network_type presets, e.g. ‘[“power”~”line”]’ or ‘[“highway”~”motorway|trunk”]’. Also pass in a network_type that is in settings.bidirectional_network_types if you want the graph to be fully bidirectional.
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
Notes
Very large query areas use the utils_geo._consolidate_subdivide_geometry function to automatically make multiple requests: see that function’s documentation for caveats.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_place(query, *, network_type='all', simplify=True, retain_all=False, truncate_by_edge=False, which_result=None, custom_filter=None)¶
Download and create a graph within the boundaries of some place(s).
The query must be geocodable and OSM must have polygon boundaries for the geocode result. If OSM does not have a polygon for this place, you can instead get its street network using the graph_from_address function, which geocodes the place name to a point and gets the network within some distance of that point.
If OSM does have polygon boundaries for this place but you’re not finding it, try to vary the query string, pass in a structured query dict, or vary the which_result argument to use a different geocode result. If you know the OSM ID of the place, you can retrieve its boundary polygon using the geocode_to_gdf function, then pass it to the features_from_polygon function.
This function uses filters to query the Overpass API: you can either specify a pre-defined network_type or provide your own custom_filter with Overpass QL.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes. You can also use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings.
- Parameters:
query (
str
|dict
[str
,str
] |list
[str
|dict
[str
,str
]]) – The query or queries to geocode to retrieve place boundary polygon(s).network_type (
str
) – {“all”, “all_public”, “bike”, “drive”, “drive_service”, “walk”} What type of street network to retrieve if custom_filter is None.simplify (
bool
) – If True, simplify graph topology with the simplify_graph function.retain_all (
bool
) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.truncate_by_edge (
bool
) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.which_result (
int
|None
|list
[int
|None
]) – which geocoding result to use. if None, auto-select the first (Multi)Polygon or raise an error if OSM doesn’t return one.custom_filter (
str
|None
) – A custom ways filter to be used instead of the network_type presets, e.g. ‘[“power”~”line”]’ or ‘[“highway”~”motorway|trunk”]’. Also pass in a network_type that is in settings.bidirectional_network_types if you want the graph to be fully bidirectional.
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
Notes
Very large query areas use the utils_geo._consolidate_subdivide_geometry function to automatically make multiple requests: see that function’s documentation for caveats.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_point(center_point, dist, *, dist_type='bbox', network_type='all', simplify=True, retain_all=False, truncate_by_edge=False, custom_filter=None)¶
Download and create a graph within some distance of a lat-lon point.
This function uses filters to query the Overpass API: you can either specify a pre-defined network_type or provide your own custom_filter with Overpass QL.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes. You can also use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings.
- Parameters:
center_point (
tuple
[float
,float
]) – The (lat, lon) center point around which to construct the graph. Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).dist (
float
) – Retain only those nodes within this many meters of center_point, measuring distance according to dist_type.dist_type (
str
) – {“bbox”, “network”} If “bbox”, retain only those nodes within a bounding box of dist length/width. If “network”, retain only those nodes within dist network distance of the nearest node to center_point.network_type (
str
) – {“all”, “all_public”, “bike”, “drive”, “drive_service”, “walk”} What type of street network to retrieve if custom_filter is None.simplify (
bool
) – If True, simplify graph topology with the simplify_graph function.retain_all (
bool
) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.truncate_by_edge (
bool
) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.custom_filter (
str
|None
) – A custom ways filter to be used instead of the network_type presets, e.g. ‘[“power”~”line”]’ or ‘[“highway”~”motorway|trunk”]’. Also pass in a network_type that is in settings.bidirectional_network_types if you want the graph to be fully bidirectional.
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
Notes
Very large query areas use the utils_geo._consolidate_subdivide_geometry function to automatically make multiple requests: see that function’s documentation for caveats.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_polygon(polygon, *, network_type='all', simplify=True, retain_all=False, truncate_by_edge=False, custom_filter=None)¶
Download and create a graph within the boundaries of a (Multi)Polygon.
This function uses filters to query the Overpass API: you can either specify a pre-defined network_type or provide your own custom_filter with Overpass QL.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes. You can also use the settings module to retrieve a snapshot of historical OSM data as of a certain date, or to configure the Overpass server timeout, memory allocation, and other custom settings.
- Parameters:
polygon (Polygon | MultiPolygon) – The geometry within which to construct the graph. Coordinates should be in unprojected latitude-longitude degrees (EPSG:4326).
network_type (str) – {“all”, “all_public”, “bike”, “drive”, “drive_service”, “walk”} What type of street network to retrieve if custom_filter is None.
simplify (bool) – If True, simplify graph topology with the simplify_graph function.
retain_all (bool) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.
truncate_by_edge (bool) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.
custom_filter (str | None) – A custom ways filter to be used instead of the network_type presets, e.g. ‘[“power”~”line”]’ or ‘[“highway”~”motorway|trunk”]’. Also pass in a network_type that is in settings.bidirectional_network_types if you want the graph to be fully bidirectional.
- Returns:
nx.MultiDiGraph – G
- Return type:
nx.MultiDiGraph
Notes
Very large query areas use the utils_geo._consolidate_subdivide_geometry function to automatically make multiple requests: see that function’s documentation for caveats.
- osmnx.graph.graph_from_xml(filepath, *, bidirectional=False, simplify=True, retain_all=False, encoding='utf-8')¶
Create a graph from data in an OSM XML file.
Do not load an XML file previously generated by OSMnx: this use case is not supported and may not behave as expected. To save/load graphs to/from disk for later use in OSMnx, use the io.save_graphml and io.load_graphml functions instead.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which OSM node/way tags are added as graph node/edge attributes.
- Parameters:
filepath (
str
|Path
) – Path to file containing OSM XML data.bidirectional (
bool
) – If True, create bidirectional edges for one-way streets.simplify (
bool
) – If True, simplify graph topology with the simplify_graph function.retain_all (
bool
) – If True, return the entire graph even if it is not connected. If False, retain only the largest weakly connected component.encoding (
str
) – The OSM XML file’s character encoding.
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
osmnx.io module¶
File I/O functions to save/load graphs to/from files on disk.
- osmnx.io.load_graphml(filepath=None, *, graphml_str=None, node_dtypes=None, edge_dtypes=None, graph_dtypes=None)¶
Load an OSMnx-saved GraphML file from disk or GraphML string.
This function converts node, edge, and graph-level attributes (serialized as strings) to their appropriate data types. These can be customized as needed by passing in dtypes arguments providing types or custom converter functions. For example, if you want to convert some attribute’s values to bool, consider using the built-in ox.io._convert_bool_string function to properly handle “True”/”False” string literals as True/False booleans: ox.load_graphml(fp, node_dtypes={my_attr: ox.io._convert_bool_string}).
If you manually configured the all_oneway=True setting, you may need to manually specify here that edge oneway attributes should be type str.
Note that you must pass one and only one of filepath or graphml_str. If passing graphml_str, you may need to decode the bytes read from your file before converting to string to pass to this function.
- Parameters:
filepath (
str
|Path
|None
) – Path to the GraphML file.graphml_str (
str
|None
) – Valid and decoded string representation of a GraphML file’s contents.node_dtypes (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – Dict of node attribute names:types to convert values’ data types. The type can be a type or a custom string converter function.edge_dtypes (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – Dict of edge attribute names:types to convert values’ data types. The type can be a type or a custom string converter function.graph_dtypes (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – Dict of graph-level attribute names:types to convert values’ data types. The type can be a type or a custom string converter function.
- Returns:
MultiDiGraph
– G- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.io.save_graph_geopackage(G, filepath=None, *, directed=False, encoding='utf-8')¶
Save graph nodes and edges to disk as layers in a GeoPackage file.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – The graph to save.filepath (
str
|Path
|None
) – Path to the GeoPackage file including extension. If None, use default settings.data_folder/graph.gpkg.directed (
bool
) – If False, save one edge for each undirected edge in the graph but retain original oneway and to/from information as edge attributes. If True, save one edge for each directed edge in the graph.encoding (
str
) – The character encoding of the saved GeoPackage file.
- Returns:
None
– None- Return type:
None
- osmnx.io.save_graph_xml(G, filepath=None, *, way_tag_aggs=None, encoding='utf-8')¶
Save graph to disk as an OSM XML file.
This function exists only to allow serialization to the OSM XML format for applications that require it, and has constraints to conform to that. As such, it has a limited use case which does not include saving/loading graphs for subsequent OSMnx analysis. To save/load graphs to/from disk for later use in OSMnx, use the io.save_graphml and io.load_graphml functions instead. To load a graph from an OSM XML file that you have downloaded or generated elsewhere, use the graph.graph_from_xml function.
Use the settings module’s useful_tags_node and useful_tags_way settings to configure which tags your graph is created and saved with. This function merges graph edges such that each OSM way has one entry in the XML output, with the way’s nodes topologically sorted. G must be unsimplified to save as OSM XML: otherwise, one edge could comprise multiple OSM ways, making it impossible to group and sort edges in way. G should also have been created with ox.settings.all_oneway=True for this function to behave properly.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Unsimplified, unprojected graph to save as an OSM XML file.filepath (
str
|Path
|None
) – Path to the saved file including extension. If None, use default settings.data_folder/graph.osm.way_tag_aggs (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – Keys are OSM way tag keys and values are aggregation functions (anything accepted as an argument by pandas.agg). Allows user to aggregate graph edge attribute values into single OSM way values. If None, or if some tag’s key does not exist in the dict, the way attribute will be assigned the value of the first edge of the way.encoding (
str
) – The character encoding of the saved OSM XML file.
- Returns:
None
– None- Return type:
None
- osmnx.io.save_graphml(G, filepath=None, *, gephi=False, encoding='utf-8')¶
Save graph to disk as GraphML file.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – The graph to save as.filepath (
str
|Path
|None
) – Path to the GraphML file including extension. If None, use default settings.data_folder/graph.graphml.gephi (
bool
) – If True, give each edge a unique key/id for compatibility with Gephi’s interpretation of the GraphML specification.encoding (
str
) – The character encoding of the saved GraphML file.
- Returns:
None
– None- Return type:
None
osmnx.plot module¶
Visualize street networks, routes, orientations, and geospatial features.
- osmnx.plot.get_colors(n, *, cmap='viridis', start=0, stop=1, alpha=None)¶
Return n evenly-spaced colors from a matplotlib colormap.
- Parameters:
n (
int
) – How many colors to generate.cmap (
str
) – Name of the matplotlib colormap from which to choose the colors.start (
float
) – Where to start in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).stop (
float
) – Where to end in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).alpha (
float
|None
) – If None, return colors as HTML-like hex triplet “#rrggbb” RGB strings. If float, return as “#rrggbbaa” RGBa strings.
- Returns:
list
[str
] – color_list- Return type:
list[str]
- osmnx.plot.get_edge_colors_by_attr(G, attr, *, num_bins=None, cmap='viridis', start=0, stop=1, na_color='none', equal_size=False)¶
Return colors based on edges’ numerical attribute values.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.attr (
str
) – Name of a node attribute with numerical values.num_bins (
int
|None
) – If None, linearly map a color to each value. Otherwise, assign values to this many bins then assign a color to each bin.cmap (
str
) – Name of the matplotlib colormap from which to choose the colors.start (
float
) – Where to start in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).stop (
float
) – Where to end in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).na_color (
str
) – The color to assign to nodes with missing attr values.equal_size (
bool
) – Ignored if num_bins is None. If True, bin into equal-sized quantiles (requires unique bin edges). If False, bin into equal-spaced bins.
- Returns:
edge_colors – Labels are (u, v, k) edge IDs, values are colors as hex strings.
- Return type:
pandas.Series
- osmnx.plot.get_node_colors_by_attr(G, attr, *, num_bins=None, cmap='viridis', start=0, stop=1, na_color='none', equal_size=False)¶
Return colors based on nodes’ numerical attribute values.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.attr (
str
) – Name of a node attribute with numerical values.num_bins (
int
|None
) – If None, linearly map a color to each value. Otherwise, assign values to this many bins then assign a color to each bin.cmap (
str
) – Name of the matplotlib colormap from which to choose the colors.start (
float
) – Where to start in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).stop (
float
) – Where to end in the colorspace (from 0 to 1).na_color (
str
) – The color to assign to nodes with missing attr values.equal_size (
bool
) – Ignored if num_bins is None. If True, bin into equal-sized quantiles (requires unique bin edges). If False, bin into equal-spaced bins.
- Returns:
node_colors – Labels are node IDs, values are colors as hex strings.
- Return type:
pandas.Series
- osmnx.plot.plot_figure_ground(G, *, dist=805, street_widths=None, default_width=4, color='w', **pg_kwargs)¶
Plot a figure-ground diagram of a street network.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – An unprojected graph.dist (
float
) – How many meters to extend plot’s bounding box north, south, east, and west from the graph’s center point. Default corresponds to a square mile bounding box.street_widths (
dict
[str
,float
] |None
) – Dict keys are street types (ie, OSM “highway” tags) and values are the widths to plot them, in pixels.default_width (
float
) – Fallback width, in pixels, for any street type not in street_widths.color (
str
) – The color of the streets.pg_kwargs (
Any
) – Keyword arguments to pass to plot_graph.
- Returns:
tuple
[Figure
,Axes
] – fig, ax- Return type:
tuple[matplotlib.figure.Figure, matplotlib.axes._axes.Axes]
- osmnx.plot.plot_footprints(gdf, *, ax=None, figsize=(8, 8), color='orange', edge_color='none', edge_linewidth=0, alpha=None, bgcolor='#111111', bbox=None, show=True, close=False, save=False, filepath=None, dpi=600)¶
Visualize a GeoDataFrame of geospatial features’ footprints.
- Parameters:
gdf (gpd.GeoDataFrame) – GeoDataFrame of footprints (i.e., Polygons and/or MultiPolygons).
ax (Axes | None) – If not None, plot on this pre-existing axes instance.
figsize (tuple[float, float]) – If ax is None, create new figure with size (width, height).
color (str) – Color of the footprints.
edge_color (str) – Color of the footprints’ edges.
edge_linewidth (float) – Width of the footprints’ edges.
alpha (float | None) – Opacity of the footprints’ edges.
bgcolor (str) – Background color of the figure.
bbox (tuple[float, float, float, float] | None) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west). If None, calculate it from the spatial extents of the geometries in gdf.
show (bool) – If True, call pyplot.show() to show the figure.
close (bool) – If True, call pyplot.close() to close the figure.
save (bool) – If True, save the figure to disk at filepath.
filepath (str | Path | None) – The path to the file if save is True. File format is determined from the extension. If None, save at settings.imgs_folder/image.png.
dpi (int) – The resolution of saved file if save is True.
- Returns:
tuple[Figure, Axes] – fig, ax
- Return type:
tuple[Figure, Axes]
- osmnx.plot.plot_graph(G, *, ax=None, figsize=(8, 8), bgcolor='#111111', node_color='w', node_size=15, node_alpha=None, node_edgecolor='none', node_zorder=1, edge_color='#999999', edge_linewidth=1, edge_alpha=None, bbox=None, show=True, close=False, save=False, filepath=None, dpi=300)¶
Visualize a graph.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiGraph | nx.MultiDiGraph) – Input graph.
ax (Axes | None) – If not None, plot on this pre-existing axes instance.
figsize (tuple[float, float]) – If ax is None, create new figure with size (width, height).
bgcolor (str) – Background color of the figure.
node_color (str | Sequence[str]) – Color(s) of the nodes.
node_size (float | Sequence[float]) – Size(s) of the nodes. If 0, then skip plotting the nodes.
node_alpha (float | None) – Opacity of the nodes. If you passed RGBa values to node_color, set node_alpha=None to use the alpha channel in node_color.
node_edgecolor (str | Iterable[str]) – Color(s) of the nodes’ markers’ borders.
node_zorder (int) – The zorder to plot nodes. Edges are always 1, so set node_zorder=0 to plot nodes beneath edges.
edge_color (str | Iterable[str]) – Color(s) of the edges’ lines.
edge_linewidth (float | Sequence[float]) – Width(s) of the edges’ lines. If 0, then skip plotting the edges.
edge_alpha (float | None) – Opacity of the edges. If you passed RGBa values to edge_color, set edge_alpha=None to use the alpha channel in edge_color.
bbox (tuple[float, float, float, float] | None) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west). If None, calculate it from spatial extents of plotted geometries.
show (bool) – If True, call pyplot.show() to show the figure.
close (bool) – If True, call pyplot.close() to close the figure.
save (bool) – If True, save the figure to disk at filepath.
filepath (str | Path | None) – The path to the file if save is True. File format is determined from the extension. If None, save at settings.imgs_folder/image.png.
dpi (int) – The resolution of saved file if save is True.
- Returns:
tuple[Figure, Axes] – fig, ax
- Return type:
tuple[Figure, Axes]
- osmnx.plot.plot_graph_route(G, route, *, route_color='r', route_linewidth=4, route_alpha=0.5, orig_dest_size=100, ax=None, **pg_kwargs)¶
Visualize a path along a graph.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiDiGraph) – Input graph.
route (list[int]) – A path of node IDs.
route_color (str) – The color of the route.
route_linewidth (float) – Width of the route’s line.
route_alpha (float) – Opacity of the route’s line.
orig_dest_size (float) – Size of the origin and destination nodes.
ax (Axes | None) – If not None, plot on this pre-existing axes instance.
pg_kwargs (Any) – Keyword arguments to pass to plot_graph.
- Returns:
tuple[Figure, Axes] – fig, ax
- Return type:
tuple[Figure, Axes]
- osmnx.plot.plot_graph_routes(G, routes, *, route_colors='r', route_linewidths=4, **pgr_kwargs)¶
Visualize multiple paths along a graph.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.routes (
Iterable
[list
[int
]]) – Paths of node IDs.route_colors (
str
|Iterable
[str
]) – If string, the one color for all routes. Otherwise, the color for each route.route_linewidths (
float
|Iterable
[float
]) – If float, the one linewidth for all routes. Otherwise, the linewidth for each route.pgr_kwargs (
Any
) – Keyword arguments to pass to plot_graph_route.
- Returns:
tuple
[Figure
,Axes
] – fig, ax- Return type:
tuple[matplotlib.figure.Figure, matplotlib.axes._axes.Axes]
- osmnx.plot.plot_orientation(G, *, num_bins=36, min_length=0, weight=None, ax=None, figsize=(5, 5), area=True, color='#003366', edgecolor='k', linewidth=0.5, alpha=0.7, title=None, title_y=1.05, title_font=None, xtick_font=None)¶
Plot a polar histogram of a spatial network’s edge bearings.
Ignores self-loop edges as their bearings are undefined. If G is a MultiGraph, all edge bearings will be bidirectional (ie, two reciprocal bearings per undirected edge). If G is a MultiDiGraph, all edge bearings will be directional (ie, one bearing per directed edge). See also the bearings module.
For more info see: Boeing, G. 2019. “Urban Spatial Order: Street Network Orientation, Configuration, and Entropy.” Applied Network Science, 4 (1), 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41109-019-0189-1
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiGraph | nx.MultiDiGraph) – Unprojected graph with bearing attributes on each edge.
num_bins (int) – Number of bins. For example, if num_bins=36 is provided, then each bin will represent 10 degrees around the compass.
min_length (float) – Ignore edges with “length” attribute values less than min_length.
weight (str | None) – If not None, weight the edges’ bearings by this (non-null) edge attribute.
ax (PolarAxes | None) – If not None, plot on this pre-existing axes instance (must have projection=polar).
figsize (tuple[float, float]) – If ax is None, create new figure with size (width, height).
area (bool) – If True, set bar length so area is proportional to frequency. Otherwise, set bar length so height is proportional to frequency.
color (str) – Color of the histogram bars.
edgecolor (str) – Color of the histogram bar edges.
linewidth (float) – Width of the histogram bar edges.
alpha (float) – Opacity of the histogram bars.
title (str | None) – The figure’s title.
title_y (float) – The y position to place title.
title_font (dict[str, Any] | None) – The title’s fontdict to pass to matplotlib.
xtick_font (dict[str, Any] | None) – The xtick labels’ fontdict to pass to matplotlib.
- Returns:
tuple[Figure, PolarAxes] – fig, ax
- Return type:
tuple[Figure, PolarAxes]
osmnx.projection module¶
Project a graph, GeoDataFrame, or geometry to a different CRS.
- osmnx.projection.is_projected(crs)¶
Determine if a coordinate reference system is projected or not.
- Parameters:
crs (
Any
) – The identifier of the coordinate reference system. This can be anything accepted by pyproj.CRS.from_user_input(), such as an authority string or a WKT string.- Returns:
projected – True if crs is projected, otherwise False
- Return type:
bool
- osmnx.projection.project_gdf(gdf, *, to_crs=None, to_latlong=False)¶
Project a GeoDataFrame from its current CRS to another.
If to_latlong is True, this projects the GeoDataFrame to the coordinate reference system defined by settings.default_crs. Otherwise it projects it to the CRS defined by to_crs. If to_crs is None, it projects it to the CRS of an appropriate UTM zone given geometry’s bounds.
- Parameters:
gdf (
GeoDataFrame
) – The GeoDataFrame to be projected.to_crs (
Any
|None
) – If None, project to an appropriate UTM zone. Otherwise project to this CRS.to_latlong (
bool
) – If True, project to settings.default_crs and ignore to_crs.
- Returns:
gdf_proj – The projected GeoDataFrame.
- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.projection.project_geometry(geometry, *, crs=None, to_crs=None, to_latlong=False)¶
Project a Shapely geometry from its current CRS to another.
If to_latlong is True, this projects the geometry to the coordinate reference system defined by settings.default_crs. Otherwise it projects it to the CRS defined by to_crs. If to_crs is None, it projects it to the CRS of an appropriate UTM zone given geometry’s bounds.
- Parameters:
geometry (
Geometry
) – The geometry to be projected.crs (
Any
|None
) – The initial CRS of geometry. If None, it will be set to settings.default_crs.to_crs (
Any
|None
) – If None, project to an appropriate UTM zone. Otherwise project to this CRS.to_latlong (
bool
) – If True, project to settings.default_crs and ignore to_crs.
- Returns:
geometry_proj, crs – The projected geometry and its new CRS.
- Return type:
tuple[shapely.Geometry, Any]
- osmnx.projection.project_graph(G, *, to_crs=None, to_latlong=False)¶
Project a graph from its current CRS to another.
If to_latlong is True, this projects the graph to the coordinate reference system defined by settings.default_crs. Otherwise it projects it to the CRS defined by to_crs. If to_crs is None, it projects it to the CRS of an appropriate UTM zone given geometry’s bounds.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – The graph to be projected.to_crs (
Any
|None
) – If None, project to an appropriate UTM zone. Otherwise project to this CRS.to_latlong (
bool
) – If True, project to settings.default_crs and ignore to_crs.
- Returns:
G_proj – The projected graph.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
osmnx.routing module¶
Calculate edge speeds, travel times, and weighted shortest paths.
- osmnx.routing.add_edge_speeds(G, *, hwy_speeds=None, fallback=None, agg=numpy.mean)¶
Add edge speeds (km per hour) to graph as new speed_kph edge attributes.
By default, this imputes free-flow travel speeds for all edges via the mean maxspeed value of the edges of each highway type. For highway types in the graph that have no maxspeed value on any edge, it assigns the mean of all maxspeed values in graph.
This default mean-imputation can obviously be imprecise, and the user can override it by passing in hwy_speeds and/or fallback arguments that correspond to local speed limit standards. The user can also specify a different aggregation function (such as the median) to impute missing values from the observed values.
If edge maxspeed attribute has “mph” in it, value will automatically be converted from miles per hour to km per hour. Any other speed units should be manually converted to km per hour prior to running this function, otherwise there could be unexpected results. If “mph” does not appear in the edge’s maxspeed attribute string, then function assumes kph, per OSM guidelines: https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_Features/Units
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.hwy_speeds (
dict
[str
,float
] |None
) – Dict keys are OSM highway types and values are typical speeds (km per hour) to assign to edges of that highway type for any edges missing speed data. Any edges with highway type not in hwy_speeds will be assigned the mean pre-existing speed value of all edges of that highway type.fallback (
float
|None
) – Default speed value (km per hour) to assign to edges whose highway type did not appear in hwy_speeds and had no pre-existing speed attribute values on any edge.agg (
Callable
[[Any
],Any
]) – Aggregation function to impute missing values from observed values. The default is numpy.mean, but you might also consider for example numpy.median, numpy.nanmedian, or your own custom function.
- Returns:
G – Graph with speed_kph attributes on all edges.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.routing.add_edge_travel_times(G)¶
Add edge travel time (seconds) to graph as new travel_time edge attributes.
Calculates free-flow travel time along each edge, based on length and speed_kph attributes. Note: run add_edge_speeds first to generate the speed_kph attribute. All edges must have length and speed_kph attributes and all their values must be non-null.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
G – Graph with travel_time attributes on all edges.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.routing.k_shortest_paths(G, orig, dest, k, *, weight='length')¶
Solve k shortest paths from an origin node to a destination node.
Uses Yen’s algorithm. See also shortest_path to solve just the one shortest path.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.orig (
int
) – Origin node ID.dest (
int
) – Destination node ID.k (
int
) – Number of shortest paths to solve.weight (
str
) – Edge attribute to minimize when solving shortest paths.
- Yields:
path – The node IDs constituting the next-shortest path.
- Return type:
Iterator
[list
[int
]]
- osmnx.routing.route_to_gdf(G, route, *, weight='length')¶
Return a GeoDataFrame of the edges in a path, in order.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.route (
list
[int
]) – Node IDs constituting the path.weight (
str
) – Attribute value to minimize when choosing between parallel edges.
- Returns:
GeoDataFrame
– gdf_edges- Return type:
geopandas.GeoDataFrame
- osmnx.routing.shortest_path(G, orig, dest, *, weight='length', cpus=1)¶
Solve shortest path from origin node(s) to destination node(s).
Uses Dijkstra’s algorithm. If orig and dest are single node IDs, this will return a list of the nodes constituting the shortest path between them. If orig and dest are lists of node IDs, this will return a list of lists of the nodes constituting the shortest path between each origin-destination pair. If a path cannot be solved, this will return None for that path. You can parallelize solving multiple paths with the cpus parameter, but be careful to not exceed your available RAM.
See also k_shortest_paths to solve multiple shortest paths between a single origin and destination. For additional functionality or different solver algorithms, use NetworkX directly.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph,orig (
int
|Iterable
[int
]) – Origin node ID(s).dest (
int
|Iterable
[int
]) – Destination node ID(s).weight (
str
) – Edge attribute to minimize when solving shortest path.cpus (
int
|None
) – How many CPU cores to use. If None, use all available.
- Returns:
path – The node IDs constituting the shortest path, or, if orig and dest are both iterable, then a list of such paths.
- Return type:
list[int] | None | list[list[int] | None]
osmnx.settings module¶
Global settings that can be configured by the user.
- all_onewaybool
Only use if subsequently saving graph to an OSM XML file via the save_graph_xml function. If True, forces all ways to be added as one-way ways, preserving the original order of the nodes in the OSM way. This also retains the original OSM way’s oneway tag’s string value as edge attribute values, rather than converting them to True/False bool values. Default is False.
- bidirectional_network_typeslist[str]
Network types for which a fully bidirectional graph will be created. Default is [“walk”].
- cache_folderstr | Path
Path to folder to save/load HTTP response cache files, if the use_cache setting is True. Default is “./cache”.
- cache_only_modebool
If True, download network data from Overpass then raise a CacheOnlyModeInterrupt error for user to catch. This prevents graph building from taking place and instead just saves Overpass response to cache. Useful for sequentially caching lots of raw data (as you can only query Overpass one request at a time) then using the local cache to quickly build many graphs simultaneously with multiprocessing. Default is False.
- data_folderstr | Path
Path to folder to save/load graph files by default. Default is “./data”.
- default_accessstr
Filter for the OSM “access” tag. Default is ‘[“access”!~”private”]’. Note that also filtering out “access=no” ways prevents including transit-only bridges (e.g., Tilikum Crossing) from appearing in drivable road network (e.g., ‘[“access”!~”private|no”]’). However, some drivable tollroads have “access=no” plus a “access:conditional” tag to clarify when it is accessible, so we can’t filter out all “access=no” ways by default. Best to be permissive here then remove complicated combinations of tags programatically after the full graph is downloaded and constructed.
- default_crsstr
Default coordinate reference system to set when creating graphs. Default is “epsg:4326”.
- doh_url_templatestr | None
Endpoint to resolve DNS-over-HTTPS if local DNS resolution fails. Set to None to disable DoH, but see downloader._config_dns documentation for caveats. Default is: “https://8.8.8.8/resolve?name={hostname}”
- elevation_url_templatestr
Endpoint of the Google Maps Elevation API (or equivalent), containing exactly two parameters: locations and key. Default is: “https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/elevation/json?locations={locations}&key={key}” One example of an alternative equivalent would be Open Topo Data: “https://api.opentopodata.org/v1/aster30m?locations={locations}&key={key}”
- http_accept_languagestr
HTTP header accept-language. Default is “en”. Note that Nominatim’s default language is “en” and it may sort its results’ importance scores differently if a different language is specified.
- http_refererstr
HTTP header referer. Default is “OSMnx Python package (https://github.com/gboeing/osmnx)”.
- http_user_agentstr
HTTP header user-agent. Default is “OSMnx Python package (https://github.com/gboeing/osmnx)”.
- imgs_folderstr | Path
Path to folder in which to save plotted images by default. Default is “./images”.
- log_filebool
If True, save log output to a file in logs_folder. Default is False.
- log_filenamestr
Name of the log file, without file extension. Default is “osmnx”.
- log_consolebool
If True, print log output to the console (terminal window). Default is False.
- log_levelint
One of Python’s logger.level constants. Default is logging.INFO.
- log_namestr
Name of the logger. Default is “OSMnx”.
- logs_folderstr | Path
Path to folder in which to save log files. Default is “./logs”.
- max_query_area_sizefloat
Maximum area for any part of the geometry in meters: any polygon bigger than this will get divided up for multiple queries to the API. Default is 2500000000.
- nominatim_keystr | None
Your Nominatim API key, if you are using an API instance that requires one. Default is None.
- nominatim_urlstr
The base API url to use for Nominatim queries. Default is “https://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/”.
- overpass_memoryint | None
Overpass server memory allocation size for the query, in bytes. If None, server will choose its default allocation size. Use with caution. Default is None.
- overpass_rate_limitbool
If True, check the Overpass server status endpoint for how long to pause before making request. Necessary if server uses slot management, but can be set to False if you are running your own Overpass instance without rate limiting. Default is True.
- overpass_settingsstr
Settings string for Overpass queries. Default is “[out:json][timeout:{timeout}]{maxsize}”. By default, the {timeout} and {maxsize} values are set dynamically by OSMnx when used. To query, for example, historical OSM data as of a certain date: ‘[out:json][timeout:90][date:”2019-10-28T19:20:00Z”]’. Use with caution.
- overpass_urlstr
The base API url to use for Overpass queries. Default is “https://overpass-api.de/api”.
- requests_kwargsdict[str, Any]
Optional keyword args to pass to the requests package when connecting to APIs, for example to configure authentication or provide a path to a local certificate file. More info on options such as auth, cert, verify, and proxies can be found in the requests package advanced docs. Default is {}.
- requests_timeoutint
The timeout interval in seconds for HTTP requests, and (when applicable) for Overpass server to use for executing the query. Default is 180.
- use_cachebool
If True, cache HTTP responses locally in cache_folder instead of calling API repeatedly for the same request. Default is True.
- useful_tags_nodelist[str]
OSM “node” tags to add as graph node attributes, when present in the data retrieved from OSM. Default is [“highway”, “junction”, “railway”, “ref”].
- useful_tags_waylist[str]
OSM “way” tags to add as graph edge attributes, when present in the data retrieved from OSM. Default is [“access”, “area”, “bridge”, “est_width”, “highway”, “junction”, “landuse”, “lanes”, “maxspeed”, “name”, “oneway”, “ref”, “service”, “tunnel”, “width”].
osmnx.simplification module¶
Simplify, correct, and consolidate spatial graph nodes and edges.
- osmnx.simplification.consolidate_intersections(G, *, tolerance=10, rebuild_graph=True, dead_ends=False, reconnect_edges=True, node_attr_aggs=None)¶
Consolidate intersections comprising clusters of nearby nodes.
Merges nearby nodes and returns either their centroids or a rebuilt graph with consolidated intersections and reconnected edge geometries. The tolerance argument can be a single value applied to all nodes or individual per-node values. It should be adjusted to approximately match street design standards in the specific street network, and you should use a projected graph to work in meaningful and consistent units like meters. Note: tolerance represents a per-node buffering radius. For example, to consolidate nodes within 10 meters of each other, use tolerance=5.
When rebuild_graph is False, it uses a purely geometric (and relatively fast) algorithm to identify “geometrically close” nodes, merge them, and return the merged intersections’ centroids. When rebuild_graph is True, it uses a topological (and slower but more accurate) algorithm to identify “topologically close” nodes, merge them, then rebuild/return the graph. Returned graph’s node IDs represent clusters rather than “osmid” values. Refer to nodes’ “osmid_original” attributes for original “osmid” values. If multiple nodes were merged together, the “osmid_original” attribute is a list of merged nodes’ “osmid” values.
Divided roads are often represented by separate centerline edges. The intersection of two divided roads thus creates 4 nodes, representing where each edge intersects a perpendicular edge. These 4 nodes represent a single intersection in the real world. A similar situation occurs with roundabouts and traffic circles. This function consolidates nearby nodes by buffering them to an arbitrary distance, merging overlapping buffers, and taking their centroid.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiDiGraph) – A projected graph.
tolerance (float | dict[int, float]) – Nodes are buffered to this distance (in graph’s geometry’s units) and subsequent overlaps are dissolved into a single node. If scalar, then that single value will be used for all nodes. If dict (mapping node IDs to individual values), then those values will be used per node and any missing node IDs will not be buffered.
rebuild_graph (bool) – If True, consolidate the nodes topologically, rebuild the graph, and return as MultiDiGraph. Otherwise, consolidate the nodes geometrically and return the consolidated node points as GeoSeries.
dead_ends (bool) – If False, discard dead-end nodes to return only street-intersection points.
reconnect_edges (bool) – If True, reconnect edges (and their geometries) to the consolidated nodes in rebuilt graph, and update the edge length attributes. If False, the returned graph has no edges (which is faster if you just need topologically consolidated intersection counts). Ignored if rebuild_graph is not True.
node_attr_aggs (dict[str, Any] | None) – Allows user to aggregate node attributes values when merging nodes. Keys are node attribute names and values are aggregation functions (anything accepted as an argument by pandas.agg). Node attributes not in node_attr_aggs will contain the unique values across the merged nodes. If None, defaults to {“elevation”: numpy.mean}.
- Returns:
G or gs – If rebuild_graph=True, returns MultiDiGraph with consolidated intersections and (optionally) reconnected edge geometries. If rebuild_graph=False, returns GeoSeries of Points representing the centroids of street intersections.
- Return type:
nx.MultiDiGraph | gpd.GeoSeries
- osmnx.simplification.simplify_graph(G, *, node_attrs_include=None, edge_attrs_differ=None, remove_rings=True, track_merged=False, edge_attr_aggs=None)¶
Simplify a graph’s topology by removing interstitial nodes.
This simplifies the graph’s topology by removing all nodes that are not intersections or dead-ends, by creating an edge directly between the end points that encapsulate them while retaining the full geometry of the original edges, saved as a new geometry attribute on the new edge.
Note that only simplified edges receive a geometry attribute. Some of the resulting consolidated edges may comprise multiple OSM ways, and if so, their unique attribute values are stored as a list. Optionally, the simplified edges can receive a merged_edges attribute that contains a list of all the (u, v) node pairs that were merged together.
Use the node_attrs_include or edge_attrs_differ parameters to relax simplification strictness. For example, edge_attrs_differ=[“osmid”] will retain every node whose incident edges have different OSM IDs. This lets you keep nodes at elbow two-way intersections (but be aware that sometimes individual blocks have multiple OSM IDs within them too). You could also use this parameter to retain nodes where sidewalks or bike lanes begin/end in the middle of a block. Or for example, node_attrs_include=[“highway”] will retain every node with a “highway” attribute (regardless of its value), even if it does not represent a street junction.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.node_attrs_include (
Iterable
[str
] |None
) – Node attribute names for relaxing the strictness of endpoint determination. A node is always an endpoint if it possesses one or more of the attributes in node_attrs_include.edge_attrs_differ (
Iterable
[str
] |None
) – Edge attribute names for relaxing the strictness of endpoint determination. A node is always an endpoint if its incident edges have different values than each other for any attribute in edge_attrs_differ.remove_rings (
bool
) – If True, remove any graph components that consist only of a single chordless cycle (i.e., an isolated self-contained ring).track_merged (
bool
) – If True, add merged_edges attribute on simplified edges, containing a list of all the (u, v) node pairs that were merged together.edge_attr_aggs (
dict
[str
,Any
] |None
) – Allows user to aggregate edge segment attributes when simplifying an edge. Keys are edge attribute names and values are aggregation functions to apply to these attributes when they exist for a set of edges being merged. Edge attributes not in edge_attr_aggs will contain the unique values across the merged edge segments. If None, defaults to {“length”: sum, “travel_time”: sum}.
- Returns:
G – Topologically simplified graph, with a new geometry attribute on each simplified edge.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
osmnx.stats module¶
Calculate geometric and topological network measures.
This module defines streets as the edges in an undirected representation of the graph. Using undirected graph edges prevents double-counting bidirectional edges of a two-way street, but may double-count a divided road’s separate centerlines with different end point nodes. Due to OSMnx’s periphery cleaning when the graph was created, you will get accurate node degrees (and in turn streets-per-node counts) even at the periphery of the graph.
You can use NetworkX directly for additional topological network measures.
- osmnx.stats.basic_stats(G, *, area=None, clean_int_tol=None)¶
Calculate basic descriptive geometric and topological measures of a graph.
Density measures are only calculated if area is provided and clean intersection measures are only calculated if clean_int_tol is provided.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.area (
float
|None
) – If not None, calculate density measures and use area (in square meters) as the denominator.clean_int_tol (
float
|None
) – If not None, calculate consolidated intersections count (and density, if area is also provided) and use this tolerance value. Refer to the simplification.consolidate_intersections function documentation for details.
- Returns:
dict
[str
,Any
] – stats –- Dictionary containing the following keys:
circuity_avg - see circuity_avg function documentation
clean_intersection_count - see clean_intersection_count function documentation
clean_intersection_density_km - clean_intersection_count per sq km
edge_density_km - edge_length_total per sq km
edge_length_avg - edge_length_total / m
edge_length_total - see edge_length_total function documentation
intersection_count - see intersection_count function documentation
intersection_density_km - intersection_count per sq km
k_avg - graph’s average node degree (in-degree and out-degree)
m - count of edges in graph
n - count of nodes in graph
node_density_km - n per sq km
self_loop_proportion - see self_loop_proportion function documentation
street_density_km - street_length_total per sq km
street_length_avg - street_length_total / street_segment_count
street_length_total - see street_length_total function documentation
street_segment_count - see street_segment_count function documentation
streets_per_node_avg - see streets_per_node_avg function documentation
streets_per_node_counts - see streets_per_node_counts function documentation
streets_per_node_proportions - see streets_per_node_proportions function documentation
- Return type:
dict[str, Any]
- osmnx.stats.circuity_avg(Gu)¶
Calculate average street circuity using edges of undirected graph.
Circuity is the sum of edge lengths divided by the sum of straight-line distances between edge endpoints. Calculates straight-line distance as euclidean distance if projected or great-circle distance if unprojected. Returns None if the edge lengths sum to zero.
- Parameters:
Gu (
MultiGraph
) – Undirected input graph.- Returns:
circuity_avg – The graph’s average undirected edge circuity.
- Return type:
float | None
- osmnx.stats.count_streets_per_node(G, *, nodes=None)¶
Count how many physical street segments connect to each node in a graph.
This function uses an undirected representation of the graph and special handling of self-loops to accurately count physical streets rather than directed edges. Note: this function is automatically run by all the graph.graph_from_x functions prior to truncating the graph to the requested boundaries, to add accurate street_count attributes to each node even if some of its neighbors are outside the requested graph boundaries.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.nodes (
Iterable
[int
] |None
) – Which node IDs to get counts for. If None, use all graph nodes. Otherwise calculate counts only for these node IDs.
- Returns:
streets_per_node – Counts of how many physical streets connect to each node, with keys = node ids and values = counts.
- Return type:
dict[int, int]
- osmnx.stats.edge_length_total(G)¶
Calculate graph’s total edge length.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
length – Total length (meters) of edges in graph.
- Return type:
float
- osmnx.stats.intersection_count(G, *, min_streets=2)¶
Count the intersections in a graph.
Intersections are defined as nodes with at least min_streets number of streets incident on them.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.min_streets (
int
) – A node must have at least min_streets incident on them to count as an intersection.
- Returns:
count – Count of intersections in graph.
- Return type:
int
- osmnx.stats.self_loop_proportion(Gu)¶
Calculate percent of edges that are self-loops in a graph.
A self-loop is defined as an edge from node u to node v where u==v.
- Parameters:
Gu (
MultiGraph
) – Undirected input graph.- Returns:
proportion – Proportion of graph edges that are self-loops.
- Return type:
float
- osmnx.stats.street_length_total(Gu)¶
Calculate graph’s total street segment length.
- Parameters:
Gu (
MultiGraph
) – Undirected input graph.- Returns:
length – Total length (meters) of streets in graph.
- Return type:
float
- osmnx.stats.street_segment_count(Gu)¶
Count the street segments in a graph.
- Parameters:
Gu (
MultiGraph
) – Undirected input graph.- Returns:
count – Count of street segments in graph.
- Return type:
int
- osmnx.stats.streets_per_node(G)¶
Retrieve nodes’ street_count attribute values.
See also the count_streets_per_node function for the calculation.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
spn – Dictionary with node ID keys and street count values.
- Return type:
dict[int, int]
- osmnx.stats.streets_per_node_avg(G)¶
Calculate graph’s average count of streets per node.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
spna – Average count of streets per node.
- Return type:
float
- osmnx.stats.streets_per_node_counts(G)¶
Calculate streets-per-node counts.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
spnc – Dictionary keyed by count of streets incident on each node, and with values of how many nodes in the graph have this count.
- Return type:
dict[int, int]
- osmnx.stats.streets_per_node_proportions(G)¶
Calculate streets-per-node proportions.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.- Returns:
spnp – Dictionary keyed by count of streets incident on each node, and with values of what proportion of nodes in the graph have this count.
- Return type:
dict[int, float]
osmnx.truncate module¶
Truncate graph by distance, bounding box, or polygon.
- osmnx.truncate.largest_component(G, *, strongly=False)¶
Return G’s largest weakly or strongly connected component as a graph.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.strongly (
bool
) – If True, return the largest strongly connected component. Otherwise return the largest weakly connected component.
- Returns:
G – The largest connected component subgraph of the original graph.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.truncate.truncate_graph_bbox(G, bbox, *, truncate_by_edge=False)¶
Remove from a graph every node that falls outside a bounding box.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.bbox (
tuple
[float
,float
,float
,float
]) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west).truncate_by_edge (
bool
) – If True, retain nodes outside bounding box if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the bounding box.
- Returns:
G – The truncated graph.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.truncate.truncate_graph_dist(G, source_node, dist, *, weight='length')¶
Remove from a graph every node beyond some network distance from a node.
This function must calculate shortest path distances between source_node and every other graph node, which can be slow on large graphs.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiDiGraph
) – Input graph.source_node (
int
) – Node from which to measure network distances to all other nodes.dist (
float
) – Remove every node in the graph that is greater than dist distance (in same units as weight attribute) along the network from source_node.weight (
str
) – Graph edge attribute to use to measure distance.
- Returns:
G – The truncated graph.
- Return type:
networkx.MultiDiGraph
- osmnx.truncate.truncate_graph_polygon(G, polygon, *, truncate_by_edge=False)¶
Remove from a graph every node that falls outside a (Multi)Polygon.
- Parameters:
G (nx.MultiDiGraph) – Input graph.
polygon (Polygon | MultiPolygon) – Only retain nodes in graph that lie within this geometry.
truncate_by_edge (bool) – If True, retain nodes outside boundary polygon if at least one of node’s neighbors is within the polygon.
- Returns:
G – The truncated graph.
- Return type:
nx.MultiDiGraph
osmnx.utils module¶
General utility functions.
- osmnx.utils.citation(style='bibtex')¶
Print the OSMnx package’s citation information.
Boeing, G. (2024). Modeling and Analyzing Urban Networks and Amenities with OSMnx. Working paper. https://geoffboeing.com/publications/osmnx-paper/
- Parameters:
style (
str
) – {“apa”, “bibtex”, “ieee”} The citation format, either APA or BibTeX or IEEE.- Returns:
None
– None- Return type:
None
- osmnx.utils.log(message, level=None, name=None, filename=None)¶
Write a message to the logger.
This logs to file and/or prints to the console (terminal), depending on the current configuration of settings.log_file and settings.log_console.
- Parameters:
message (
str
) – The message to log.level (
int
|None
) – One of the Python logger.level constants. If None, set to settings.log_level value.name (
str
|None
) – The name of the logger. If None, set to settings.log_name value.filename (
str
|None
) – The name of the log file, without file extension. If None, set to settings.log_filename value.
- Returns:
None
– None- Return type:
None
- osmnx.utils.ts(style='datetime', template=None)¶
Return current local timestamp as a string.
- Parameters:
style (
str
) – {“datetime”, “iso8601”, “date”, “time”} Format the timestamp with this built-in style.template (
str
|None
) – If not None, format the timestamp with this format string instead of one of the built-in styles.
- Returns:
str
– timestamp- Return type:
str
osmnx.utils_geo module¶
Geospatial utility functions.
- osmnx.utils_geo.bbox_from_point(point, dist, *, project_utm=False, return_crs=False)¶
Create a bounding box around a (lat, lon) point.
Create a bounding box some distance (in meters) in each direction (north, south, east, and west) from the center point and optionally project it.
- Parameters:
point (
tuple
[float
,float
]) – The (lat, lon) center point to create the bounding box around.dist (
float
) – Bounding box distance in meters from the center point.project_utm (
bool
) – If True, return bounding box as UTM-projected coordinates.return_crs (
bool
) – If True, and project_utm is True, then return the projected CRS too.
- Returns:
bbox or bbox, crs – (north, south, east, west) or ((north, south, east, west), crs).
- Return type:
tuple[float, float, float, float] | tuple[tuple[float, float, float, float], Any]
- osmnx.utils_geo.bbox_to_poly(bbox)¶
Convert bounding box coordinates to Shapely Polygon.
- Parameters:
bbox (
tuple
[float
,float
,float
,float
]) – Bounding box as (north, south, east, west).- Returns:
Polygon
– polygon- Return type:
shapely.Polygon
- osmnx.utils_geo.interpolate_points(geom, dist)¶
Interpolate evenly spaced points along a LineString.
The spacing is approximate because the LineString’s length may not be evenly divisible by it.
- Parameters:
geom (
LineString
) – A LineString geometry.dist (
float
) – Spacing distance between interpolated points, in same units as geom. Smaller values accordingly generate more points.
- Yields:
point – Interpolated point’s (x, y) coordinates.
- Return type:
Iterator
[tuple
[float
,float
]]
- osmnx.utils_geo.sample_points(G, n)¶
Randomly sample points constrained to a spatial graph.
This generates a graph-constrained uniform random sample of points. Unlike typical spatially uniform random sampling, this method accounts for the graph’s geometry. And unlike equal-length edge segmenting, this method guarantees uniform randomness.
- Parameters:
G (
MultiGraph
) – Graph from which to sample points. Should be undirected (to avoid oversampling bidirectional edges) and projected (for accurate point interpolation).n (
int
) – How many points to sample.
- Returns:
point – The sampled points, multi-indexed by (u, v, key) of the edge from which each point was sampled.
- Return type:
geopandas.GeoSeries